Air springs not a simple parts but a complex suspension system
Pneumatic springs – The pneumatic spring, which consists of an air cylinder chamber, is located between the wheel and the car body, and uses air compression properties to prevent wheel vibrations. Its design is more than a century old and can be found in horse-drawn carriages. Air springs at that time were made of air bags full of air, very similar to airbags; In 1930, leather-molded air springs replaced these bags.
Given the location of the springs in the car – which is between the wheels and the body – engineers often find it appropriate to talk about suspended mass and non-suspended mass (= mass that comes in contact with the road).
Springs: Suspended and non-suspended mass
Suspended mass is the mass of the vehicle on the springs, while suspended mass is defined separately as the mass between the road and the springs of the suspension. Spring dryness affects the reaction of the suspended mass while driving. Cars with a weak suspension mass, such as aristocratic cars (such as the Lincoln City Car), can easily digest bumps and provide an extremely smooth and comfortable ride; However, such a car suffers from diving and sitting, while braking and accelerating, and at the corners and turns, it shows a greater tendency to experience waves or torsion of the body. Cars with hard springs, such as sports cars (such as the Mazda Miata), are more violent than bumpy roads. But this type of car minimizes the movement of the body; And that means they have the ability to ride like crazy, even at the corners.
So while springs themselves seem like simple parts, designing and applying them to a car to balance passenger comfort and car control is a complex process. And to complicate matters, the springs alone cannot provide a perfectly smooth ride. Why? Because they are excellent at absorbing energy, but they are not good at releasing it. Other parts are needed as shock absorbers to do this well.