Familiarity with car suspension system
When people talk about cars, they usually refer to things like horsepower, torque and zero to one hundred, but the power that the engine generates is useless without proper control over the car. The task of the suspension is to maximize the friction between the tires and the road surface, thus significantly increasing the car’s maneuverability and making the driver and passengers more comfortable. It is clear that the suspension also plays an important role in ensuring the safety of the car.
If the road is perfectly smooth and without any obstacles, there is no need for a suspension, but even a newly built freeway is not completely smooth. Bumpers, road defects and accelerators apply vertical force to the car wheels due to their size and height, and if there is no suspension, this force is transmitted to the body and can even cause the wheels to detach from the ground. The suspension must absorb the energy from this vertical force and prevent it from being transmitted to the body.
The suspension, which is part of the car chassis, generally has three purposes:
Car suspension system
Absorb energy from passing through the bumps and preventing its transfer to the body.
Maintain contact between the wheels and the road, as this contact and friction give the car steering, braking and acceleration. Proper transfer of machine weight when turning. The suspension prevents one side of the car from detaching from the ground.
The suspension system has three main components: springs, shock absorbers (damper) and anti-oscillation rods. In the following, we will deal with different types of parts used in the suspension system.
Torsion bar or torsion bar in automotive suspension Torsion bars use torsional properties to provide function similar to helical springs. One side of the rod is attached to the car frame and the other side is attached to a spindle that can move like a lever in a direction perpendicular to the axis of the rod. When the wheel passes over a ridge, vertical force is applied to the stern and then to the torsion bar. The rod begins to twist along its axis and provides the required spring force. This type of spring was more common in European cars, but was also used by American automakers such as Packard and Chrysler in the 1950s and 1960s.
Air springs in car suspension Air springs have a cylindrical chamber filled with air and use the ability to compress air to absorb wheel vibrations. The use of these springs dates back to more than a century ago, when they were used in carriages. Modern cars can also use computer technology to use air compression to adjust the desired height and optimize the driving experience.
There are four main types of springs used in automobiles today:
Spiral or annular spring
Spiral or annular spring in car suspension system This type of spring is the most used in the automotive industry. This spring is actually a heavy-duty torsion bar wrapped around an axis. Spiral springs absorb the force of the wheels by opening and closing.
Leaf spring In the car suspension system, leaf spring, also called flat spring, is made of several layers of metal connected to each other, each of which is called a bar. These layers work together as an independent unit. The use of these springs has been limited to heavy and freight vehicles in recent years.
Although springs are simple parts, their design and placement in the car, so as to provide comfort to the driver and passengers and increase control over the car, is a complex operation. You need to know that springs are great for absorbing force, but they are not suitable for distribution, which is why another part called the shock absorber is needed in the suspension system.